President-elect Donald Trump’s policies on illegal immigration, particularly on the border wall and cracking down on sanctuary cities, were at the center of his election campaign. Now, advocates of immigration restriction are hoping for reform to H-1B visas that they say are hurting American workers.

The H-1B is a temporary, non-immigrant visa, currently capped at 85,000 visas a year, that allows employers to hire skilled, specialty workers on a temporary basis -- particularly scientists, engineers, or computer programmers.

However, critics say that the system is rife with abuse, and is no longer a limited short-term program to help employers with unexpected labor shortages in niche areas, and has instead become a way to push out American workers in favor of cheap foreign labor.

“Because of lobbying by the Chamber of Commerce and big tech companies, they’ve succeeded in loosening standards and we’ve seen the increasingly common scenario where American workers are fired, and have to train their replacements,”  Dan Stein, President of the Federation for American Immigration Reform, told

Trump has shifted stances somewhat on the visas. After initially taking a hard stance against them, in contrast to some of his Republican opponents, at a primary debate in March he appeared to change his stance and said: “I’m changing. I’m changing. We need highly skilled people in this country, and if we can’t do it, we’ll get them in.”

He later released a statement saying the H-1B program “is neither high-skilled nor immigration: these are temporary foreign workers, imported from abroad, for the explicit purpose of substituting for American workers at lower pay.”

“I will end forever the use of the H-1B as a cheap labor program, and institute an absolute requirement to hire American workers first for every visa and immigration program. No exceptions,” he said.

While Sessions’ appointment may put those companies who use the system on edge, analysts say there is still a long way to go in appointments.

“I think companies are in wait-and see mode, By the time of inauguration there’ll be a clearer sense of who will be head of Council of Economic Advisors and the Department of Labor. There’ll be a better sense of the team and that will tell the tech companies something,” Robert D. Atkinson, president of the Information Technology and Innovation Foundation (ITIF), told

The plight of American workers being replaced was highlighted earlier this year when laid-off Disney IT workers sued the company, claiming that despite high performance ratings, they were made to train their foreign replacements. In February, the Senate Judiciary Committee heard testimony from some of those laid off. Presiding over the hearing was Sen. Jeff Sessions.

Adams Nager, economic policy analyst at ITIF, found that unemployment in STEM fields is very low, and concludes that, despite occasional stories of lay-offs, “America faces a shortage of high-skilled STEM talent, especially in IT industries.”

Those opposed to the current state of the program say there are a number of things a Trump administration could do without needing whole-scale reform from Congress.

“One of those is to collect the data and make it available to the public. That would strike horror into the industry,” John Miano, a fellow at the Center for Immigration Studies, told “This has been kept secret or not collected. We don’t know who are getting the visas, we don’t know where the people are, what occupations they’re in or what the salary is.”

Other possible reforms include a clarification on the definition of “specialized knowledge,” which could help cut down on abuse, and a limit on such visas for two years.

Proponents on both side of the issue agree that, despite the pick of Sessions as AG, it is not yet clear which way the administration will fall on the issue. Trump’s official website makes no mention of H-1Bs on the immigration policy page. But those who want significant reform are hopeful in the wake of the Sessions pick.

“H-1B spans the Department of Justice, Labor Department and USCIS [United States Citizenship and Immigration Services]. There’s hope you’d have people at all three levels enforcing the law, and Sessions gives us hope they’ll start doing that,” Miano said.